The purpose of the Injury Illness Prevention Program (IIPP) is to outline Cal Maritime's environmental health and safety requirements, expectations, and responsibilities in order to achieve effective campus safety performance through Integrated Safety Management (ISM). The Flammable Liquid Storage Plan is a subject specific component the supports the overall University IIPP.
Note: Training Ship Golden Bear (TSGB) is regulated under MARAD. For operations pertaining to the TSGB - Refer to Shoreside Administration Manual (SAM) and Vessel Operations Manual (VOM).
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), and the California Fire Code (CFC) define flammable liquids as any liquid that has a flash point of less than 100oF (38oC)1 and combustible liquids as those that have a flash point greater than 100oF (38oC). These are further categorized into the following subdivisions based on the flashpoint and/or boiling point.
Classification of Flammable and Combustible Liquids
The properties of flammable materials are of critical importance in the safe storage and use of these materials. The flash point of a liquid is defined as the minimum temperature at which a liquid gives off sufficient vapor to ignite in the presence of a source of ignition. Remember, it is the vapor that burns and not the liquid.
The Department of Transportation (DOT) and American National Standards Institute (ANSI) define flammable liquids as those with a flash point less than 140OF which includes NFPA Class II combustible liquids.
Mixtures of soluble flammable chemicals and water also affect the flammable properties of these solutions
The maximum allowable quantities of flammable or combustible liquids allowed in a control area (laboratory or suite of laboratories) are limited by the location in the building and the construction specifications. Typical laboratories are not constructed to high hazard group specifications (check with the facility manager).
The following table shows the maximum allowable quantities that can be stored in a single fire control area (laboratory or suite of laboratories) per floor. Note that quantities may be increased when using approved flammable cabinets and in areas equipped with fire suppression sprinklers. The maximum allowable quantity is the total aggregate quantity of liquids stored inside cabinets, outside cabinets, and in safety cans.
Maximum quantities shall be increased 100% for buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system. Where note b applies, the increase for both shall be applied accumulatively.
Quantities shall be increased 100% when stored in approved cabinets, gas cabinets, exhausted enclosures, or safety cans as specified by the International Fire Code. Where noted applies, the increase for both shall be applied accumulatively.
The permitted quantities shall not be limited in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system and provided with exhaust ventilation.
Containing not more than the maximum allowable quantity per control area of Class 1A, 1B, or 1C flammable liquids
The California Code of Regulations Title 8, Section 5532 and OSHA 1910.106 define the maximum allowable capacity for containers used in laboratories.
Individual glass containers of Class IA liquids must not exceed 1 pint (500 ml) capacity. Individual glass containers of Class 1B liquids must not exceed 1 quart (1 liter) capacity. Exception: Class I-A and I-B liquids may be stored in factory-shipped glass containers up to 1- gallon or 4-liter capacity if the required liquid purity would be affected by storage in metal containers or if the liquid would cause excessive corrosion of a metal container.
Class I-A liquids can be stored in metal containers not larger than 1 gallon (4 liters) capacity, or U.L. listed safety cans not larger than 2 gallons (8 liters) capacity.
For liquids other than Class I-A liquids, the capacity of the containers regardless of type (i.e., metal, glass, etc.) must not exceed five (5) gallons each.
Flammable Cabinets must meet the construction specifications of NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible.
Liquids Code, and the California Fire Code. Cabinets must be Underwriter Laboratories (U.L.) 1275 listed which is indicated by a permanent label on the cabinet affixed by the manufacturers. Self-closing doors with a three point latch are required per the California Fire Code, Section 3404.3.2.1.3. Cabinets should be placed so that they do not block or impede egress.
NFPA 30 does not require flammable cabinets to be ventilated. If not vented, the vent openings must be sealed. If vented, the vent openings must be equipped with spark arrestors. The supply and exhaust must be ducted to the outside and the flow must be installed with supply provided at the top and exhaust exiting at the bottom of the cabinet. Cal Maritime facilities must approve venting of any flammable storage cabinet.
Grounding is not required unless Class IA flammable liquids are being dispensed from the cabinet. If grounding is desired, the cabinets must be grounded to a static grounding terminal and not to the ground of an electrical receptacle.
Improper storage of flammable liquids in household-type domestic refrigerators can be very dangerous and present the risk of personal injury and/or property damage. The accumulation of vapors in this confined space can result in an explosion or fire if these vapors are ignited by the various electrical components inside the refrigerator compartment. These sources of ignition include temperature controls, thermostats, relays, light switches, light assemblies, defrost mechanisms, fans, and even mechanical door latches.
Storageofchemicals in refrigerated environments requires proper precautions:
Keep all containers tightly closed.
No open containers (no open beakers, test tubes, flasks, bottles, or other containers).
Make sure that the integrity of the container and the lid or stopper is adequate.
Domestic household refrigerators have internal components located inside the inner compartment such as thermostats, lights, and switches that can create a spark capable of igniting vapors from flammable liquids stored inside. This type of refrigerator is the lowest cost so many labs use this type of refrigerator for storing non- flammable chemicals. Domestic Refrigerators must be labeled properly. Flammable materials must never be stored in this type of refrigerator.
Modified Domestic Refrigerator/Freezers
Protection Association (NFPA 45) Standard on Fire Protection for Laboratories Using Chemicals, describes the modification procedure and the proper notices to be used. This practice is not recommended.
Extreme caution should be exercised because in some cases not all the possible sources of ignition may have been isolated. Using previously modified refrigerators is acceptable if the laboratory inspects them regularly for defects such as frayed wiring. Defective refrigerators should not be used to store flammable materials.
Notice: This is not an explosion proof refrigerator, but it has been designed to permit the safe storage of materials producing flammable vapors. Containers should be well- stoppered or tightly closed.
Laboratory-safe refrigerators are designed to prevent ignition of flammable vapors or gases that may be present inside the refrigerator only. Laboratory-safe or flammable material refrigerator/freezers should be purchased whenever a refrigerator is needed to store flammable liquid.
These refrigerator/freezers are designed to prevent ignition of flammable vapors inside the storage compartment. All the electrical components in this type of refrigerator are located outside the refrigerator, and the compressor is sealed or located at the top of the unit. Flammable material refrigerators also may incorporate design features such as thresholds, self-closing doors, magnetic door gaskets, and special inner shell materials that control or limit the damage should a reaction occur within the storage compartment. The refrigerators must be U.L. Listed as Flammable Material Storage Refrigerators. Ultra-low freezers (less than -40°F) generally cannot be approved for storage of flammable materials
Explosion-proof refrigerators are designed to prevent ignition of flammable vapors or gases that may be present inside and outside the refrigerator. This type of refrigerator is used in locations such as solvent dispensing rooms, where a flammable atmosphere may develop at some time in the room. Explosion-proof refrigerators have very limited use and require special hazardous-location wiring rather than the simple plug-in type power cord.
No more than ten (10) gallons of flammable or combustible liquids may be stored outside a flammable cabinet (with the exception of materials stored in approved safety cans).
Quantity Limits Inside Flammable Storage Cabinets
Flammable liquids stored inside flammable storage cabinets are limited to 60 gallons of Class 1A flammable liquids per cabinet. The total volume of combined classes of flammable and combustible liquids may not exceed 120 gallons per cabinet
Whenever large amounts of hazardous materials are being stored and used within SLAC, warning placards are required. These placards act as an immediate warning system for emergency service personnel, helping them identify the kinds of materials present and the dangers they pose. 11The placard design is based on the hazard identification system described in Recommended System for the Identification of the Fire Hazards of Materials, National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 704.
The diamond-shaped placards use these four color-coded categories to give at a glance a general idea of the hazards present:
Health: blue, at the left. Injury hazard from burning materials
Flammability: red, at the top. Susceptibility of materials to burning
Reactivity: yellow, at the right. Susceptibility of materials to release energy
Special hazards: white, at the bottom for hazards important to emergency response personnel; additional special hazards in rectangular white boxes below the placard
The numbers in each box give the order of severity in emergency conditions such as spills, leaks, and fires, from four, indicating severe hazard or extreme danger, to zero, indicating no required warning.
Select Rating Numbers: Determine each material stored or used at the facility and its warning system category and rating. Refer to the material safety data sheets (MSDS) for your building/facility. Use these criteria:
Materials that under emergency conditions can be lethal
Materials that under emergency conditions can cause serious injury
Materials that under emergency conditions can cause temporary incapacitation or residual injury
Materials that under emergency conditions can cause significant irritation
Materials that offer no hazard beyond that of ordinary combustible material
All liquids and gases with a flash point below 73F and a boiling point below 100F
All liquids and gases with flash points at or below 73F and a boiling point at or above 100F and those liquids having flash point at or above 73F and below 100F
All liquids with a flash at or above 100F and below 200F or solids that readily give off vapors
All liquids, solids, and semi solids with flash points at or above 200F
Materials that will not burn, including any material that will not burn in air when exposed to a temperature of 1500 for a period of 5 minutes
Materials readily capable of detonation or explosive reaction at normal temperatures and pressures. Includes materials that are very sensitive to heat, shock, or light. Examples would include explosives A & B and organic peroxides
Materials which when heated and under confinement are capable of detonation and which may react violently with water. A "W" should appear as a special hazard if an explosive reaction with water can be expected. Examples would include blasting agents, fireworks, and ammonium nitrate fertilizer
Materials which will undergo a violent chemical change at elevated temperatures and pressures but do not detonate. A "W" should appear as a special hazard if contact with water may cause a violent reaction or may cause potentially explosive mixtures to be formed. Examples would include combustible metals and water reactive corrosive materials
Materials which are normally stable but may become unstable in combination with other materials or at elevated temperatures and pressures. A "W" should appear as a special hazard if a vigorous but not violent reaction with water may take place. Examples would include most common corrosive and oxidizing materials
Materials that in themselves are normally stable, even under fire conditions
Special Hazards (White)
Note: Refer to the MSDS for the NFPA symbol for each hazard category. Special hazard symbols, such as W (water reactive), OXY (oxidizing material), CRY (cryogenic material), COR (corrosive material), POI (poisonous material), or the radiation warning symbol, must be added to the white bottom section of the placard when available information indicates that one of these special hazards exist. When multiple special hazards exist, add white panels below the placard to list the additional special hazards that apply.
Facility and building placards identify the highest hazard rating in each category based on the combined materials in a category rating exceeding threshold quantities. Placards will be required when the following amounts of materials are stored or used at a facility:
Subdivisions (rooms or compartments) of buildings or areas within a facility will be placarded to indicate the greatest possible hazards within those subdivisions. Placards will be required when the following amounts of materials are stored or used in a subdivision:
Building facility placards must be 15 inches by 15 inches, with each category diamond 7.5 inches by 7.5 inches. Each category diamond on the placard must have the proper background color. The numbers must be 6.0 inches in height with a 0.75-inch stroke, and the number must be centered within its diamond. The numbers may be either white or black, providing sufficient contrast is made against the background color in each category. Subdivision placards may be smaller, typically 8.0 x 8.0 inches
Placards shall be affixed to buildings or areas within the facility on each side where entry can be made at an appropriate height to be easily seen from approaching emergency equipment. A placard must be placed at the property line on a facility gate or post if a placarded building or area within a facility cannot be easily seen when approaching the property. Affix subdivision placards next to access points into the subdivisions. These placards must be visible when doors into subdivisions are opened or closed.
U-Corrective Action Notification. Accident prevention through proactive action, recognition and communication.
Report of Safe Work Practices: Demonstrates the unconditional dedication toward the protection of person and property.
Report of Safety Concerns:You are encouraged to report any and all unsafe conditions that you observe on campus by using this form. You may make your report anonymously or you can contact the Department of Safety and Risk Management directly at 707-654-1076. The Report of Safety Concerns include but are not limited to; health and safety risks (such as trip and fall hazards or unsafe conduct by employees or students),