Web Content Display Web Content Display

Faculty & Scientists

Web Content Display Web Content Display


Associate Professor of Oceanography

Contact: aparker@csum.edu
Tel: 707-654-1149
Location: Faculty Office Building 120



Dr. Alex Parker is a biological oceanographer and an Associate Professor of Oceanography at Cal Maritime.  Dr. Parker's research interests span diverse marine environments, from the Chukchi Sea in the Arctic Ocean and the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica, to the high nutrient, low chlorophyll equatorial Pacific Ocean.    Closer to home, Dr. Parker has studied the productive coastal upwelling in the Gulf of the Farallones and the fascinating ecology of the San Francisco Estuary and Delta.    With several published papers and more than one hundred research cruises to survey the San Francisco Estuary, Dr. Parker works regularly with state science and natural resource agencies to evaluate estuarine management strategies.

Current Projects:

Operation Baseline

Funded by the Delta Science Program with supplementary funding from the State Water Contractors.

Upgrades to a major municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) that discharges treated effluent to the Sacramento River are scheduled for completion in 2021.  The upgrades will dramatically reduce the total nitrogen concentrations and forms in the northern San Francisco Estuary and Delta.  Operation Baseline is a set of interrelated studies funded by the Delta Stewardship Council to: 1. characterize conditions in the estuary prior to the WWTP upgrade and 2. Develop a set of tools and approaches that may be used to monitor how the estuary will respond after the upgraded treatment system is fully implemented.  Cal Maritime is working to characterize the abundance and species composition of phytoplankton in the Delta.  Additionally, primary production and nitrogen uptake is being measured for food web modeling.  The results will enable comparisons between present and future conditions.


Research Interests:

My broad research interest is marine microbial biogeochemistry, addressing questions related to: 1) characterizing underlying controls on phytoplankton and bacterial processes in aquatic systems. 2) quantifying microbial food web dynamics 3) understanding microbial responses to coastal nutrient pollution.  I primarily work in urbanized estuaries (Delaware Bay and San Francisco Bay Estuary) where coastal pollution, including large-scale nutrient fertilization, has had major impacts on the microbial community. In addition to my estuarine work, I have also conducted research in the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary, the Equatorial Pacific Ocean, the Chukchi Sea (Arctic Ocean) and in Antarctica.

Synergistic Activities:

· Member, Governing Board Central and Northern California Ocean Observing System

· Chair, Bay Delta Conservation Plan, Effect Analysis Science Panel

· Member, Association for the Sciences in Limnology and Oceanography, Coastal and Estuarine Research Society, California Estuarine Research Society (Officer)

Selected Publications

Glibert, P.M., R. C. Dugdale, F Wilkerson, A. E. Parker, J. Alexander, E. Antell, S. Blaser, A. Johnson, J. Lee, T. Lee, S. Murasko, S. Strong. 2014.  Major – but rare – spring blooms in 2014 in San Francisco Bay Delta, California, a result of the long-term drought, increased residence time, and altered nutrient loads and forms.  Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology.  460: 8-18.

Buck, C., F. P. Wilkerson, A.E. Parker, R.C. Dugdale 2014. The influence of coastal nutrients on phytoplankton productivity in a shallow low inflow estuary, Drakes Estero, California (USA). Estuaries and Coasts. DOI 10.1007/s12237-013-9737-6

Parker, A.E.,W.J.  Kimmerer, U. Lidstrom, U. 2012. Re-evaluating the generality of empirical models for light-limited primary production in the San Francisco Estuary. Estuaries and Coasts.  35(4):930-942.

Kimmerer, W.J., A.E. Parker, U.  Lidstrom 2012. Short-Term and Interannual Variability in Primary Productivity in the low-salinity zone of the San Francisco Estuary. Estuaries and Coasts. 35(4): 913-929.

Parker, A.E., F.P. Wilkerson, R.C. Dugdale. 2012. Elevated ammonium concentrations from wastewater discharge depress primary productivity in the Sacramento River and the northern San Francisco Estuary. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 64(3):574-586

Lefebvre, S.C., Benner, I., Drake, M.K., Rossignol, P.E., Okimura, K.M., Komada, T., Stillman, J.H., Parker, A.E. Carpenter, E.J. 2012. Nitrogen source and pCO2 synergistically affect carbon allocation, growth and morphology of the coccolithophoreEmiliania huxleyi.  Global Change Biology18(2):493-503.

Parker, A.E., Wilkerson, F., Dugdale R.C., Hogue, V., Marchi, A. 2011.  Understanding spatial patterns in nitrogen uptake and phytoplankton in the equatorial Pacific upwelling zone (110ºW – 140ºW) during 2004 and 2005. Deep Sea Research II. 58 (3-4): 417-433.

Brzezinski, M.A., Baines, S., Chai, F., Balch, W.M., Dugdale, R.C., Krause, J.W., Landry, M.R., Marchi, A., Measures, C.I., Nelson, D.M., Parker, A.E., Selph, K.E., Strutton, P., Taylor, A.G., Twining, B.S., Beucher, C. 2011. Co-limitation of diatoms by iron and silicic acid in the equatorial Pacific. Deep Sea Research II.  58 (3-4): 493-512.

Sharp, J.H., Yoshiyama, K., Parker, A.E., Schwartz, M. C., Curless, S. E., Beauregard, A.Y., Ossolinski, J., Davis, A.R.  2009. The chemistry of the Delaware Estuary: seasonal and spatial trends and correlations. Estuaries and Coasts 32(6): 1023-1043

Kirchman, D.L., Hill, V, Cottrell, M.T., Gradinger, R., Malmstrom R.R., Parker, A.E. 2008 Primary production and the processing of organic carbon by heterotrophic bacteria in the western Arctic Ocean. Deep Sea Research II, 56(17): 1237-1248.

Cottrell, M. T., R. R. Malmstrom, Hill, V. Parker, A.E. Kirchman, D.L. 2006. The metabolic balance between autotrophy and heterotrophy in the western Arctic Ocean.Deep Sea Research Part I 53(11): 1831-1844.

Parker, A. E. 2005. Differential supply of autochthonous organic carbon and nitrogen to the microbial loop of the Delaware Estuary.Estuaries 28(6): 856-867.

Sharp, J. H., A. Y. Beauregard, Burdige, D., Cauwet, G., Curless, S. E.,Lauck, R., Nagel, K., Ogawa, H., Parker, A. E., Primm, O. 2004. A direct instrument comparison for measurement of total dissolved nitrogen in seawater. Marine Chemistry 84(3-4): 181-193.

Back to Top


Web Content Display Web Content Display


 Alejandro Cifuentes-Lorenzen

Assistant Professor of Oceanography

Contact: acifuentes-lorenzen@csum.edu



AlejandroAlejandro Cifuentes-Lorenzen's expertise is in air-sea interaction dynamics, specifically boundary layer physics. In particular, he is working to further elucidate the role of waves in the transfer of momentum and kinetic energy across the air-sea interface and is principally focused on wave-driven turbulence. An objective of this work is to better understand wave-induced perturbations at the boundary (above and below the sea surface) and, because these small-scale processes have an enormous impact on regional and global transport but cannot be numerically resolved, he seeks to characterize them and to contribute to the development of parameterizations that can improve general circulation and atmospheric modeling efforts. His research to date has been based on open and coastal ocean observations.

A multi-institution, NSF supported project, a collaboration between the University of Connecticut, Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory at Columbia, University of Rhode Island and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution has been funded to further elucidate the transfer of energy from the atmosphere to the sea, mediated by waves. For this project, I am leading a comprehensive field campaign out of the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory (Fall 2019), designed to track the evolution of the turbulent kinetic energy budget on both sides of the air-sea interface, capturing wave-driven dynamics and wave-driven turbulence at the boundary layer. We will address the subsurface turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) dissipation rate under breaking conditions and the wave dependent TKE dissipation rate profile, a direct consequence of the energy exchange between wind and waves. We will also investigate the importance of Langmuir circulation relative to Eulerian shear production and the injection of TKE from wave breaking. 

For a NASA funded project, in collaboration with Kate Randolph, a Cal Maritime research scientist, we are using optical tools, both active sensors in situ and hyperspectral radiometers positioned just above the sea surface, to study wave breaking. Ocean color serves as a novel method for exploring boundary layer dynamics and subsurface physics. This work includes a two-month field campaign for collecting measurements of hyperspectral reflectance at high sampling frequency, high resolution digital imagery, bubble dynamics, and TKE dissipation rates. Additionally, we will explore the signal of waves on upwelling radiance. The tentative plan is to redeploy the hyperspectral radiometers in fall 2019, concurrent with an NSF project.



Randolph, K and Cifuentes-Lorenzen, A. (submitted): The case for measuring whitecaps using ocean color and initial linkages to subsurface physics. Special Topics in Air-Sea Interaction, Springer.


Cifuentes-Lorenzen, A., Edson, J., Zappa, C.J., (2018): Air-Sea Interaction in the Southern Ocean; Exploring the Height of the Wave Boundary Layer at the Air-Sea Interface. Boundary-Layer Meteorol. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10546-018-0376-0


Cifuentes-Lorenzen, A., J.B. Edson, and C.J. Zappa (2013) A Multisensor Comparison of Ocean Wave Frequency Spectra from a Research Vessel during the Southern Ocean Gas Exchange Experiment. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 30 (12): 2907–25.


Randolph, K., H.M. Dierssen, A. Cifuentes-Lorenzen, W.M. Balch, E.C. Monahan, C.J. Zappa, D.T. Drapeau, and B. Bowler (2017) Novel Methods for Optically Measuring Whitecaps under Natural Wave-Breaking Conditions in the Southern Ocean. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 34, 533–554, https://doi.org/10.1175/JTECH-D-16-0086.1


Randolph, K., H.M. Dierssen, M. Twardowski, A. Cifuentes-Lorenzen, and C.J. Zappa (2014). Optical measurements of bubble size distributions at 6-9 m depths generated by large scale breaking waves in the Southern Ocean. J. Geophys. Res. Ocean, 119, 757-776.


Lund, B., C.J. Zappa, H.C. Graber, and A. Cifuentes-Lorenzen (2017) Shipboard Wave Measurements in the Southern Ocean. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 34, 2113–2126, https://doi.org/10.1175/JTECH-D-16-0212.1



Brumer, S.E., C.J. Zappa, B.W. Blomquist , C.W. Fairall, A. Cifuentes-Lorenzen, J.B. Edson, I.M. Brooks, and B.J. Huebert. (2017) Wave-related Reynolds number parameterizations of CO2 and DMS transfer velocities. Geophys. Res. Letters, 44. doi: 10.1002/2017GL074979


Brumer, S.E., Christopher J. Zappa, Ian M. Brooks, Hitoshi Tamura, Scott M. Brown, Byron W. Blomquist, Christopher W. Fairall, and Alejandro Cifuentes-Lorenzen. (2017) Whitecap Coverage Dependence on Wind and Wave Statistics as Observed during SO GasEx and HiWinGS. Journal of Physical Oceanography 47:9, 2211-2235.


Edson, J.B., C.W. Fairall, L. Bariteau, C.J. Zappa, A. Cifuentes-Lorenzen, W.R. McGillis, S. Pezoa, J.E. Hare, and D. Helmig (2011). Direct Covariance Measurement of CO2 Gas Transfer Velocity during the 2008 Southern Ocean Gas Exchange Experiment: Wind Speed Dependency. Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol 116, 24 pp.


Web Content Display Web Content Display

 Kate Randolph

Assistant Research Scientist

Contact: krandolph@csum.edu



KateWith expertise in optical oceanography, Kaylan (Kate) Randolph's research is centered on relating freshwater, estuarine and oceanic optical properties to biogeochemistry and upper ocean physics, including particle population composition and dynamics, breaking waves and bubbles. She has been developing methods to measure whitecaps and bubble plumes using measurements of in and above water optical properties and coupling the optics with meteorological and wave field parameters to investigate the mechanisms underlying the distribution and evolution and of naturally occurring, wind-wave induced bubbles populations. She is further developing and implementing these approaches to link light scattering and ocean color during wave breaking to turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rates in an effort to characterize light scattering during wave breaking and to further elucidate wave-driven turbulence at the air-sea interface. She is also investigating the physical and biological sources of backscattering in the Southern Ocean by partitioning the measured bulk angular distribution of scattered light into the contribution by different particle populations, including bubbles, phytoplankton, particulate inorganic material, and colloids. She has developed, coordinated, and conducted field campaigns using a wide range of in and above water oceanographic instrumentation from a variety of platforms.


Ocean photo by Stuart Klipper
Stuart Clipper

Kate is leading a NASA funded effort to develop new methods for measuring breaking waves, bubble plumes and dissipation using above surface radiometry and in situ optics from the Air-Sea Interaction Tower at Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute. In another collaboration, she will deploy a suite of radiometers and optical instrumentation with Professor Alejandro Cifuentes Lorenzen at Cal Maritime and a team of scientists from University of Connecticut, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory, and the University of Rhode Island collecting turbulence measurements across the air-sea interface.

Selected Publications

Randolph, K., H.M. Dierssen, A. Cifuentes-Lorenzen, W.M. Balch, E.C. Monahan, C.J. Zappa, D.T. Drapeau, and B. Bowler (2017), Novel methods for optically measuring whitecaps under natural wave breaking conditions. J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech., 34, 533-554.

Randolph, K., H.M. Dierssen, M. Twardowski, A. Cifuentes-Lorenzen, and C.J. Zappa (2013), Optical measurements of small, deeply penetrating bubble populations generated by breaking waves in the Southern Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research Oceans, 119, 757-776.

Hedley, J., B. Russell. K. Randolph, M.A. Perez-Castro, R.M. Vasquez-Elizondo, S. Enriquez, and H.M. Dierssen (2017), Remote sensing of seagrass leaf area index and species: the capability of a model inversion method assessed by sensitivity analysis and hyperspectral data of Florida Bay. Frontiers in Marine Science, 4, 362.

Hedley, J., B. Russell, K. Randolph, and H.M. Dierssen (2016), A physics based method for the remote sensing of seagrasses, Remote sensing of Environment, 174, 134-147.

Dierssen, H. and K. Randolph (2013), Remote Sensing of Ocean Color, in Earth System Monitoring, edited by J. Orcutt, pp. 439-472, Springer New York.

Randolph, K., J. Wilson, L.P. Tedesco, L. Li, D.L. Pascual and E. Soyeux (2008), Hyperspectral remote sensing of cyanobacteria in turbid productive water using optically active pigments, chlorophyll a and phycocyanin, Remote Sensing of Environment, 112, 4009-4019.

Stephens, B. et al. (2018), The O2/N2 Ratio and CO2 Airborne Southern Ocean Study, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 99, 381–402https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-16-0206.1.

Cifuentes-Lorenzen, A and K. Randolph (submitted), The case for measuring whitecaps using ocean color and initial linkages to subsurface physics, Special Topics in Air-Sea Interaction, Springer.




Web Content Display Web Content Display

Christopher BrownChristopher Brown

Scientific Program Manager, Golden Bear Research Center

Contact: cbrown@csum.edu
Tel: 707-654-1282


Chang, A.L., C.W. Brown, J.M. Crooks, and G.M. Ruiz. 2017. Dry and wet periods drive rapid shifts in community assembly in an estuarine ecosystem. Global Change Biology. 24:1-16
Marraffin, M.L., G.V. Ashton, C.W. Brown, A.L. Chang, and G.M. Ruiz. 2017. Settlement plates as monitoring devices for non-indigenous species in marine fouling communities. Management of Biological Invasions. 8:559-566
Zabin, C.J., G.V. Ashton, C.W. Brown, I.C. Davidson, M.D. Sytsma, and G.M. Ruiz. 2014. Small boats provide connectivity for nonindigenous marine species between a highly invaded international port and nearby coastal harbors. Management of Biological Invasions. 5:97-112
Murphy, K.R., J.R. Boehme, C.W. Brown, M. Noble, G. Smith, D. Sparks, and G.M. Ruiz. 2013. Exploring the limits of dissolved organic matter fluorescence for determining seawater sources and ballast water exchange on the US Pacific coast. Journal of Marine Systems. 111-112: 157-166.
Davidson, I.C., C.J. Zabin, A.L. Chang, C.W. Brown, M.D. Sytsma and G.M. Ruiz. 2010. Recreational boats as potential vectors of marine organisms at an invasion hotspot. Aquatic Biology. 11: 179-191
Zabin, C.J., G.V. Ashton, C.W. Brown and G.M. Ruiz. 2009. Northern range expansion of the Asian kelp, Undaria pinnatifida (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae) in Western North America. Aquatic Invasions. 4(3): 429-434
Davidson, I.C., C.W. Brown, M.D. Sytsma and G.M. Ruiz. 2009. Has containerization helped to reduce the risk of spreading marine nonindigenous species via the biofouling vector. Biofouling. 25(7): 645-655.
Santagata, S., K. Bacela, D.F. Reid, K.A. McLean, J.S. Cohen, J.R. Cordell, C.W. Brown, T.H. Johengen and G.M. Ruiz. 2009. Concentrated sodium chloride brine solutions as an additional treatment for preventing the introduction of nonindigenous species in the ballast tanks of ships declaring no ballast on board. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 28(2): 346-353
Published Technical Reports:  
Brown, C., N. Dobroski, R. Nedelcheva, C. Scianni, and J. Thomspon 2017. Biennial Report on the California Marine Invasive Species Program. Produced for the California State Legislature. 127 pp.
Dobroski, N., C. Brown, R. Nedelcheva, C. Scianni, and J. Thomspon 2015. Biennial Report on the California                Marine Invasive Species Program. Produced for the California State Legislature. 99 pp.
Scianni, C., C. Brown, A. Newsom, R. Nedelcheva, M. Falkner and N. Dobroski. 2013. Biennial Report on the California Marine Invasive Species Program. Produced for the California State Legislature. 125 pp.
Davidson, I., G. Ashton, G. Ruiz, C. Scianni, C. Brown, K. Pagenkopp-Lohan and R. Fleischer. 2013. Richness, extent, condition, reproductive status, and parasitism of fouling communities on commercial vessels. Report to the California State Lands Commission, Marine Invasive Species Program. Sacramento, CA. 51pp.
Zabin, C.J., G. Ashton, C.W. Brown, I. Davidson, T. Chestnut, R. Draheim, M.D. Sytsma and G.M. Ruiz. 2011. Hull Fouling: Characterizing Magnitude and Risk of Species Transfers by Recreational and Fishing Vessels. Final report to the Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission. 105pp.
Boehme, J., K. Murphy, M. Noble, C. Brown, D. Sparks, G. Smith and G. Ruiz. 2008. Full Scale Study: Demonstration Project for the Full Scale, Ship Based Application of a Ballast Water Verification Method to Vessel Arrivals on the U.S. Pacific Coast. Final Report submitted to the United States Department of Commerce, National Sea Grant Program. 73pp.
Murphy, K., J. Boehme, C. Brown, M. Noble, G. Smith, D. Sparks and G. Ruiz. 2007. Ballast Water Exchange Verification: Testing Application of Chemical Tracers on the U.S. Pacific Coast. Final Report submitted to the California State Lands Commission. 69pp.
Ruiz G., C. Brown, G. Smith, B. Morrison, D. Ockrassa, K. Nekinaken. 2004. Analysis of biofouling associated with the hulls of containerships arriving to the Port of Oakland: a pilot study. In: Ruiz, GM, Smith G. Biological studies of containerships arriving to the Port of Oakland. Oakland, California. pp 138-155


Web Content Display Web Content Display

Stephen LoiconoStephen Loiacono

Science Coordinator, Golden Bear Research Center

Contact: sloiacono@csum.edu
Tel: 707-654-1259




Stephen Loiacono is a staff scientist with the Golden Bear Research Center. He received his Bachelor's degree from the University of North Carolina, Wilmington in  Marine Biology and his M.S in Marine Science from Moss Landing Marine Laboratories.  He now serves as the Science Coordinator and Quality Manager for the GBRC and is involved in research, development and testing of ballast water management systems.



Web Content Display Web Content Display

Rich MullerRichard Muller

Engineering Operations Manager, Golden Bear Research Center

Contact: rmuller@csum.edu
Tel: 707-654-1258
Location: Boathouse Rm 107





Mr. Richard Muller has been working in the marine industry in several capacities; sailing on oceanographic research vessels, managing vessels and small ports, education, and now ballast water treatment system testing.  Rich graduated college with a degree in marine biology and worked for the State University of New York at Stonnybrook, the University of Hawaii, Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, and presently the California Maritime Academy (CMA).  His diverse background in science, science support, management and shipping lends a unique perspective to all aspects of the maritime field. Presently Mr. Muller manages the waterfront and most of the training vessels at CMA and is also the engineering facilities manager of the Golden Bear Facility (GBF); working with various vendors and agencies to test Ballast Water Management Systems to strict international and national standards.


July 1986. Bachelor of Science in Marine Biology.

Long Island University/Southampton Campus, Southampton, New York.

June 1983. Associates Degree of Arts and Sciences in Marine Technology. Suffolk County Community College, Riverhead, New York.

Licenses and Professional Documentation

· Master of Steam and Motor Vessels of not more than 100 Gross Tons Upon Near Coastal Waters

· Able Seaman Unlimited


· Waterfront Manager and Golden Bear Facility Engineering Operations Manager. California Maritime Academy. August 2007 – Present

· Maritime Vocational Lecturer.  California Maritime Academy. August 2007 – January 2009

· Marine Superintendent. Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, Marine Operations, Moss Landing, California. April 2000 – August 2007

· Marine Equipment Technician Supervisor. Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, Marine Operations, Moss Landing, California. August 1994 – April 2000

· Marine Electronics Technician (Oceanographic Technician). University of Hawaii, Department of Oceanography, Honolulu, Hawaii. August 1992 - August 1994

· Research Associate. University of Hawaii, Department of Oceanography, Honolulu, Hawaii. May 1991 - August 1992

· Marine Electronics Technician (Oceanographic Technician). University of Hawaii, Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, Kaneohe, Hawaii. November 1989 - May 1991

· Technical Specialist. Marine Sciences Research Center, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York. October 1986 - October 1989

Publications and Presentations:

Development and construction of a Ballast Water Management System testing facility onboard the Training Ship GOLDEN BEAR - International Association of Maritime Universities (IAMU) Presentation 2011

A new Ballast Water Management System testing facility onboard the Training Ship GOLDEN BEAR - Prevention First, California State Lands Commission Presentation 2012

Ballast Water Management System testing onboard the Training Ship GOLDEN BEAR, an Introduction – Bay Planning Coalition 2012

Update and Progress Report of the Golden Bear Facility (GBF) Ballast Water Management System Testing – Pacific Ballast Water Group 2014

Variations in salinity and temperature during a tidal cycle in Western Long Island Sound.

R. Muller, H. Bokuniewicz, R. Ranheim

Marine Sciences Research Center, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 1989

Calibrations and CTD intercomparison for the Long Island Sound Study 1989.

H. Bokuniewicz, R. Muller, J. Salerno

Marine Sciences Research Center, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 1989

Professional Affiliations and Committees:

· Pacific Ballast Water Group.  2010 – 2014

Intercalibration Project to test the Naval Research Laboratories efforts to develop the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Protocol for testing ballast water management systems to the United States Coast Guard standards. 2011


Scroll Up
Staging Enabled
Last updated: 8/27/20